When it comes to terms like New World and Old World wine, a bit of confusion is often in store for the newly minted wine nerd.
What’s the difference between the two? How does wine change from one “world” to another?
It gets a little obtuse.
So let’s explore the difference between new world vs old world wines and how they differ. Because there’s more to it than meets the eye.
New World vs Old World: What’s the Difference?
In broad strokes, it comes down to where modern winemaking traditions originated.
Beyond this, a couple of other key factors in taste and flavor get lumped under the stylistic references to “old world” and “new world” wines. (As you can guess, there are a few exceptions.)
Old World vs. New World Wine Taste
These characteristics are typical but by no means a rule. Old World wine tends to have a lighter body, lower alcohol, higher acidity, and less fruity flavor with more minerality. New World wine tends toward fuller body, high alcohol, lower acidity, and pronounced fruit flavors.
Of course, this is almost like the difference between cool climate and warm climate wines.
But it’s not that cut and dry. Italy is Old World, but there are some hot spots there making rich, fruity wines. Also, if you can imagine, Canada really isn’t anything but a cool climate.
So our dearests, instead we look to the local traditions, and this thing the French call “terroir” of a country and its regions.
Old World Wine Regions
“We don’t just follow the rules. We made the rules.”
– Old World wines
The definition of Old World wine regions comes down to the areas where modern winemaking traditions first originated. When it comes to the old world, the operative word is “influence.”
These are the places that exported wines, grapes, winemakers, and traditions into other countries.
Old World Examples
Countries like France and Italy. Here are a few examples of how these countries have influenced the rest of the world.
France: Whatever your opinion on French wine may be, to study wine is to study France. It’s here you’ll find the origin place of grapes like Cabernet Sauvignon, Pinot Noir, and Chardonnay. These grapes are so influential in fact, that they’re often referred to as “international varieties.”
France’s best blends (Bordeaux, Champagne, etc) have defined what makes a balanced wine for hundreds of years. And French traditions have shaped the tastes of winemakers all over the world.
Italy: Italy’s winemaking influence has spread far and wide, particularly in that new world mecca of California. California’s earliest European settlers were Italian, and you can still see their fingerprints on many regions there.
Portugal: Their fortified Madeira was incredibly popular with the early Congress of the USA. This influenced the man some have called America’s first winemaker: Thomas Jefferson.
Spain: Spain has a massive number of native grape varieties. Plus, they’ve dedicated more of their land to the growing of grapes than any other country in the world. This has led to their own individual taking on about every wine style: from red blends to sparklers.
Germany: Germany is far more than just Riesling, but this country’s most popular grape has gained traction all over the world. Riesling grows everywhere from South Africa to the Finger Lakes of New York.
Others: Hungary, Croatia, England, Etc
New World Wine Regions
“The only reason to learn the rules is so you can break them later.”
-New World wines
Calling the Americas or Africa “new” might seem downright insane to your average historian (not to mention millions of indigenous people). So, we’re talking about the spread of winemaking in this context.
“New World” refers to those countries and winemakers that borrowed traditions from other countries to jumpstart their own. More often than not, this happened alongside colonization. After all, it was a hard world and would make one thirsty.
Since the colonizers were European, they started with those ideas.
Over time, through circumstance or creativity, these folks threw out many old ways and developed new ones. New world wine was born!
New World Examples
Countries in North and South America and South Africa, Australia, New Zealand, and now: China! Let’s take a look at how these countries have set themselves apart from the old-school crowd.
North America: California immediately comes to mind. California’s wine industry proved that it could stand shoulder-to-shoulder with Europe during the famous Judgement of Paris.
And since then, it’s opened doors for the rest of the New World to get credit where due. Everything from the plush, fruit-forward wines of the Pacific Northwest to the gold color of Canada’s Ice Wine has received its due in the years since.
South America: If there’s one thing wine fans know South America for, it’s taking French grapes and making them their own.
Argentina’s answer to Malbec and Chile’s version of Carménère are some of the best known. Both wines are unique and original when compared to their European counterparts.
Australia: Settled by Europeans in an environment that couldn’t be less like Europe if it tried, Australia’s wine industry was a testament to willpower and determination.
These days, your average drinker might not know much about Syrah, but you can bet they’ve got an Australian Shiraz in their bar.
New Zealand: Perhaps the best example of the transformation of a grape-based on terroir is that of the battle between French and New Zealand Sauvignon Blanc.
Climate and winemaking practices have proven that the Kiwis can take a steely French white and transform it into a cornucopia of tropical fruit.
South Africa: As far as “new world” goes, South African wine is definitely the oldest, having been first planted in the 1600s. It’s hardly new here.
But the combination of European influence and gradual transformation forces it into the new world category by definition. Not to mention the fact that most non-South African wine drinkers knew nothing about South African wine until the 1980s at best.
China: A relative newcomer to the worldwide wine stage, China’s history with fermentation and culture goes back further than any other country on this list. Still, they’ve adopted the “French Model” mostly with their recent transformations.
Overall, New World wines tend to mimic and then innovate. The definition of these wines is far less structured than those of the Old World.
Old World vs New World: The Last Word
Neither Old World wines nor New World wines are necessarily better than the other. Like all choices in the wine world, it comes down to your personal preferences. Keep in mind that, when shopping for wines, Old World wines will generally be labeled by the region of origin rather than the grape variety because of the emphasis on terroir.
In Spain, for example, a red wine labeled “Rioja” will likely be a Tempranillo or a Garnacha. In Italy, a wine labeled “Chianti” or “Brunello di Montalcino”, will be made from the Sangiovese grape.
As you explore the wine world, you may enjoy trying a varietal of wine from both worlds and see if you can tell the difference. There will always be exceptions to the general descriptors we’ve described but, hey, it’s wine, and you can never go wrong with that.
From Corkwines with love ❤️